Salt merchant Huang Chao failed the imperial examination, rich but not expensive, how he embarked on the road of rebellion and self-proclaimed emperor
Preface It is not accurate to say that Huang Chao was a salt trader who traveled from place to place before the uprising. He had a high literary talent since childhood. He could write poems at the age of 8 and was a famous child prodigy near Heze, Shandong province.Two of his works are included in The Whole Tang Poetry, one of which is written by Huang Chao angrily after he failed the imperial examination in Chang ‘an many times.Skyward fragrant array through Chang ‘an, the city with golden armour.Emperor Taizong once said: “All heroes get caught in my child!”He explained the secret of the imperial examination system: the imperial examination system was set up to attract scholars all over the world and expend their talents on examination papers.And Huang Chao became a “fish in the net” in the imperial examination.After writing the song budi Hou Fu Ju in Chang ‘an, Huang Chao set foot on another road of life.The court less a minister, more than a hero, this hero is about to become the Tang dynasty gravedigger.Huang Chao’s family has sold salt for generations.Salt selling in the Tang Dynasty was originally an official battalion, and salt tax was one of the important financial revenue of the imperial court. Therefore, the imperial court cracked down heavily on the selling of illicit salt, either by sending them to the army or by executing them.The abnormal market makes selling bootleg salt lucrative, many people in order to make a living desperate risk, on the edge of the living.In order to ensure the safety of salt trading, Huang Chao home pulled up a team, usually secret salt selling, the government to catch, armed confrontation, in Heze local is a bully, home accumulated a lot of wealth.In huang Chao’s generation, the family hoped to train him to become a scholar, so that he could take part in the imperial examination and become an official in the future, and wash away the black history of the family.In ancient times, money alone was no use. Local gentry still looked down upon the Huangs and treated them as mud legs. Being rich without being expensive was the biggest pain for the Huangs.But the road leading to the imperial examination was heavily sealed, Huang Chao returned home to inherit the ancestral business, dry up the trading of salt.History records, dry fu years, Henan suffered for several consecutive years of disaster, “still the year of fierce famine, people hungry for theft, Henan especially”.The imperial court could not afford the money and food for the disaster relief, so the people could not wait to starve to death. They had to take the risk of becoming bandit, robbing local rich families to make a living.When society was in chaos, the salt merchants lost their business, and they were both merchants and bandits. If the merchants failed, there was only one option left — bandits.The salt traders, who have long lived in grey areas, have two advantages to rebel: a ready army and accumulated wealth.The hundreds of brothers who licked their blood were people when they put down their swords and soldiers when they picked up their swords.The money earned from selling salt can be used to build weapons and buy grain, rapidly expanding the army and capturing cities and territory.Wang Xianzhi, a salt merchant from Henan, was the first to rebel. He picked up a troop of vagrants and attacked cities in Henan. Cao, Pu and Yun were captured and sacked.When the neighboring Huang Chao heard this, his confidence increased and he immediately emptied his wealth and armed a team of 5,000 people to seek refuge with Wang xianzhi.Wang and Huang were equal in strength, but Wang Xianzhi rose up early and had a higher rank, followed by Huang Chao.The two armies joined forces, their strength increased, and they captured four henan states.At that time, the uprising troops were still in the stage of exile, with simple weapons and inadequate training. They did not have the strength to fight against the regular army of the imperial court. They could only take the mode of looting, that is, after capturing a place, they robbed all the property in the city, and then they continued to the next place with all the people, and never stopped to defend the city.When the imperial court heard about the henan uprising, song Wei, pinglu’s emissary, was fully responsible for suppressing the uprising.The regular army was out of the ordinary, in Yizhou defeated the rebels, Wang Xianzhi fled in the chaos, unknown.Song Wei sent a letter to Emperor Xizong saying that Wang Xianzhi was dead, and led his troops back to qingzhou.Unexpectedly, a few months later, Wang Xianzhi reappeared, led the army one breath captured eight counties, troops forced Luoyang, the whole country was shocked.The imperial court ordered Song Wei to wage war again.Song Wei did not fight, but cleaned up the mess.The generals in the front loyal acted so, Tang Loyal had no choice but to send more loyal envoys to participate in the repression, but under Song Wei’s “inspiration”, the loyal envoys mostly had the same mind and did not exert themselves.Huang Chao rushed out of Henan province and reached the Jianghuai Region while his troops were watching each other.Jianghuai was the heavy taxation area of the imperial court, and the wealth here was related to the country’s financial security.Jiang Huai lost, the bureau is unstable, pondering, the court made the decision to invite peace.Needless to say, Huang Chao had wanted to become an official through the imperial examination when he was young. How could he give up this opportunity?Wang Xianzhi was also eager to try, announced that the immediate strike, waiting for the government will.Can rescript read, only hear the king xian Zhi as “left shenzhigi army ya”, there is no arrangement for others.Huang Chao army immediately burst the pot, got cheap Wang Xianzhi advised Huang Chao calm, Huang Chao felt sold, the more excited, the last two people to start.Huang Chao beat Wang Xianzhi head broken and bleeding.Wang Xianzhi saw the situation was about to get out of control, and was forced to refuse the appointment of the imperial court, killing the eunuchs who came to announce the ediction, said that they would continue to take the ranks of the uprising.Huang Chao quit and moved alone with some of his troops to attack Shandong. The rebellion was officially split.Without huang Chao’s help, Wang Xianzhi’s army fell into a passive position. Seeing the situation was not good, Wang Xianzhi asked Song Wei to surrender and ask for the position of provincial commander.Pretending to agree, Song Wei sent his men to kill the rebel leader who had come to negotiate.Wang Xianzhi was furious and sent troops to a decisive battle. She was defeated by the army and had her head beheaded.The remnants of Wang Xianzhi took refuge in Huang Chao, the two armies together in one place, the momentum, they elected Huang Chao as the “sky general”.At that time, there were so many officers and armies in the Central Plains that the rebels could not move an inch. During the three years of fighting with the officers and armies, Huang Chao realized a truth: the officers and armies were so powerful that they could not fight against each other. However, in such a vast territory of the empire, there were always places that the officers and armies could not cover.The rebels will fight their way out.Huang Chao led his army across the Yangtze River and attacked and plundered the south.Jiangnan area, no strong enemy, weak defense, very suitable for the rebel movement.In a short time, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian and other areas have fallen, huangchao army can not be stopped, the strength of the day, soon defeated Guangzhou, zhao shocked.He wrote to the imperial court that he hoped to be the governor of Guangzhou.The court would only make him an aide to the crown prince, and the negotiations broke down again.Judging from huang Chao’s request to be the provincial governor of Guangzhou, his ambition was limited to hegemony and becoming an emperor of the land.There were so many disobedient generals in the world, and so many huang Chao, but the court was divided, and still regarded the rebels as a rabble.Little did they know that with the wealth of Guangzhou, they had already metamorphosed into a regular army with the strength to compete with the official army.The rebel army stayed in Guangzhou for a year. At the beginning of the next spring, most of the soldiers were from the north and could not adapt to the lingnan climate. A plague broke out and “three or four out of ten died”, forcing Huang Chao to leave.It is said that during their retreat, the rebels seized the wealthy city of Guangzhou, leaving it empty.The rebels built thousands of bamboo rafts in Guilin and drove them up the river. If they entered the territory of no one, they directly hit the city of Jingzhou in Hubei Province. Only then did the court organize a decent resistance.Prime Minister Wang Duo requested to go to the front to command the battle.Huang Chao saw that all the prime ministers were out. In order to avoid them, huang Chao moved from Hubei to Jiangxi, entered Zhejiang, and captured Yangzhou.Yangzhou was also looted and the rebel army swelled to 600, 000.Huang Chao army is like a cancer cell out of control, nibbling at the dying body of tang Dynasty.This time they returned to the north. Officials from all over Henan abandoned the city and fled. Luoyang, the eastern capital, was in danger.Crying, Tang Xizong asked the ministers, and the ministers suggested calling up 150,000 loyal soldiers from Chang ‘an to guard It at Tongguan and defend the Capital Loyal Division.When the news came out, there was a wail in Chang ‘an city. At this time, the Shenshigi army was no longer as brave as it had been in those days. Rich families recruited poor impostors to take their place, but only thousands of people were recruited.At the end of his tether, Emperor Xizong had no choice but to let Zhang Chengfan lead the shenzhigi army to the battle.After huang Chao’s army captured Luoyang, it took on a different mental attitude. Instead of burning, killing and looting, the rebels posted a notice of peace, telling luoyang residents not to worry that the rebels were coming to rescue them.Huang Chao, who occupied the eastern capital, was no longer content with being crowned emperor or a festival commander. He was now going to be emperor!Six hundred thousand troops besieged Tongguan, Zhang Chengfan holding the determination to die.He took out the home of the gold to all the soldiers said: “You mian country, save and to!”He contributed his last little ability, the soldiers grateful, rusticity greatly, broke out the last trace of courage to defend the pass.After shooting the bows and arrows, he smashed them with flying stones, but it was still outnumbered. The next day It fell to Tongguan, and Tang Xizong and the officers fled to Xianyang under the escort of 500 loyal soldiers.Huang Chao army entered Chang ‘an in awe and saw the poor actually giving money and food to win the hearts of the people. He completely lost the vice of the thief army.Unfortunately, the good times did not last long. A few days later, the thieves showed their true colors and robbed the rich. Surrounded by officials, Huang Chao ascended the throne in the Hall of Hanyuan and established the state of “Daqi”.But indulged in the two Beijing gentle countryside in the Yellow Nest soon ushered in the end of the collapse.The only areas actually controlled by the rebels were liangjing and Guanzhong, and more than 90% of the country was still loyal to the Tang Dynasty. The reason why the rebels could conquer the two capitals depended on mobility operations, and they had no worries about defending the city.Now, Chang ‘an and Luoyang were like two “crystal coffins” to keep the rebels firmly dead in the city. The official army finally found a breakthrough and had the opportunity to wipe them out at one stroke.The next year, Zhu Wen, the senior loyal of the rebel Army, saw the situation was not good and surrendered to the government. Tang Loyal changed his name to Quan Zhong and encouraged him to loyal to the court and destroy the bandits.In the hedong festival, Li Keyong, a Man of Shatuo, led his cavalry to sweep through Guanzhong and won hundreds of victories.Huang Chao rebellion fell into a state of collapse, disconcerted withdrawal from Chang ‘an, Luoyang.Conclusion generation fierce huang Chao picked up the last 5000 remnants, withdrew into the Wolf tiger valley, was killed by the spy, head for Li Kechao income, pass the first Beijing division.At the end of the Tang Dynasty, the huangchao Uprising ended.